People & Talents
The quantitative information set out below regarding the Group's employees worldwide covers all the entities that are fully consolidated in the Group's financial statements. However, some of the data comes from the Group's Worldwide Human Resources Survey (WHRS), which gathers approximately 100 indicators measuring important aspects of Total's human resources policy. The WHRS is performed on a sample of employees from representative consolidated companies at the business segment and regional levels; when WHRS is mentioned in this document, reference is made to data related to this sample, which represents 87.5% of the Group's employees at 135 subsidiaries in 2016, a slight decrease compared to 2015 (91%) and 2014 (91%), due to the variation in the number of employees in the consolidated companies, principally due to the acquisitions of Saft Groupe and Lampiris.
As of December 31, 2016, the Group had 102,168 employees belonging to 340 employing companies and subsidiaries located in 104 countries. The tables below present the breakdown of employees by the following categories: gender, nationality, business segment, region and age bracket.
At year-end 2016, the countries with the most employees were France, the United States, Mexico, Poland and China. The increase in the number of employees between 2015 and 2016 was principally due to the acquisitions of Saft Groupe and Lampiris. The decrease in the number of employees between 2014 and 2015 was due, on the one hand, to the policy of limiting recruitment in the Group's oil-related sector to face the decrease in the price of hydrocarbons and, on the other hand, to divestments made during the year.
|Group registered headcount as of December 31,||2016||2015||2014|
|Total number of employees||102,168||96,019||100,307|
Employees joining and leaving Total
|As of December 31,||2016||2015||2014|
|Total number hired on open-ended contracts(a)||10,940||9,022||10,771|
Amid an economic downturn related to oil prices, the policy of limiting the hiring of employees under open-ended contracts that began in 2015 continued in 2016. The increase in the consolidated scope was mainly due to the 41% increase in Hutchinson's hiring. The regions in which the largest number of employees were hired were Latin America (42.9%), Europe (excluding France) (19.5%) and Asia (16.5%). In 2016, the fully consolidated Group companies also hired 4,433 employees on fixed-term contracts. Close to 464,000 job applications were received by the companies covered by the WHRS.
The increase in the number of departures from 2015 to 2016 was mainly due to a high turnover in SunPower and Hutchinson.
|As of December 31,||2016||2015||2014|
|Total number of departures(a)||11,058||7,724||7,195|
|Dismissals / negotiated departures||4,958||2,754||2,413|
|Ruptures conventionnelles (specific negotiated departure in France)||142||123||129|
|Total departures / total employees||10.8%||8%||7.2%|
The Group's Human Resources policy applies to all companies in which Total S.A. holds the majority of voting rights. In terms of compensation, the aim of this policy is to ensure external competitiveness and internal fairness, reinforce the link to individual performance, increase employee share ownership and fulfill the Group's CSR commitments.
A large majority of employees benefit from laws that guarantee a minimum wage, and, whenever this is not the case, the Group's policy ensures that compensation is above the minimum wage observed locally. Regular benchmarking is used to assess compensation based on the external market and the entity's competitive environment. Each entity's positioning relative to its reference market is assessed by the Human Resources department of each business segment, which monitors evolutions in payroll, turnover and consistency with the market.
Fair treatment is ensured within the Group through the widespread implementation of a job level evaluation using a common method (the Hay method), which associates a salary range to each job level. Performance of the Group's employees (attainment of set targets, skills assessment, overall evaluation of job performance) is evaluated during an annual individual review and formalized in accordance with principles common to the entire Group.
The compensation structure of the Group's employees is based on the following components, depending on the country:
- a base salary, which each year, in addition to a general salary-raise campaign, is subject to a merit-based salary-raise campaign intended to compensate employees' individual performance according to the targets set during the annual individual review, including at least one HSE (Health, Safety, Environment) target;
- and individual variable compensation starting at a certain level of responsibility, which is intended to compensate individual performance (quantitative and qualitative attainment of previously set targets) and the employee's contribution to collective performance evaluated among others according to HSE targets set for each business segment, which represent up to 10% of the variable portion. In 2016, 82.2% of the Group's entities (WHRS scope) included HSE criteria in the variable compensation.
Complementary collective variable compensation programs are implemented in some countries, such as France, via incentives and profit-sharing that also incorporates HSE criteria. According to the agreement signed for 2015-2017 applicable to the oil and petrochemicals1 (scope of more than 18,000 employees in 2016) sector in France, the amount available for employee incentive is determined based on financial parameters (the Group's return on equity and the evolution of the net adjusted income compared to the other major oil companies2) and the attainment of safety targets (injury rate and accidental deaths).
The Group also offers employee benefit and pension programs (health, death and pension) based on a single standard of coverage at the Group level. These programs, which supplement those that may be provided for by local regulations, allow each employee to:
- benefit, in case of illness, from coverage that is at least equal to the median amount for the national industrial market;
- save or accumulate income substitution benefits for retirement;
- and arrange for the protection of family members in case of the employee's death via insurance that provides for the payment of a benefit recommended to equal two years' gross salary. This program was made available to 91% of the workforce in 2016 (WHRS scope).
These programs are reviewed on a regular basis and adjusted when necessary.
Employee shareholding, one of the pillars of the Group's human resources policy, is extended via three main mechanisms: the grant of performance shares, share capital increases reserved for employees, and employee savings. ln this way, Total wishes to encourage employee shareholding, strengthen their sense of belonging to the Group and give them a stake in the Group's performance by allowing them to benefit from their involvement.
Each year since 2005, Total has granted performance shares to many of its employees (approximately 10,000 each year since 2009). The definitive granting of these shares depends on the fulfillment of performance conditions assessed at the end of a vesting period extended to three years in 2013 (for more information, refer to point 4 of chapter 6, p. 125 of the 2016 Registration Document).
The last plan approved by the Board of Directors of TOTAL S.A. in July 2016 granted nearly a 20% higher volume of performance shares and ensured a significant replenishment rate: 40% of plan beneficiaries had not received performance shares the previous year. More than 10,000 non-senior executive employees were concerned by this plan, namely 97% of the beneficiaries.
The Group also regularly invites its employees to subscribe to capital increases reserved for employees through a Shareholder Group Savings Plan (PEG-A) created in 1999 for this purpose. Depending on the offerings chosen and the employees' location, these operations are completed either through Company Savings Plans3 (FCPE) or by subscribing directly for shares or for American Depositary Receipts (ADR) in the United States.
Pursuant to the authorization given by the Annual Shareholders' Meeting of May 24, 2016, at its meeting on July 27, 2016 the Board of Directors of Total S.A. approved the principle of a share capital increase reserved for employees to be completed in 2017. This operation concerns approximately 110 countries. As in 2015, two offerings are proposed: a traditional scheme with a 20% discount and a leveraged scheme in all countries where permitted by law. Employees will receive a matching contribution of five free shares for the first five shares subscribed. The shares subscribed will give holders current dividend rights. The subscription period was closed at the end of March 2017.
The previous operation took place in 2015. Approximately 42,000 employees in 102 countries participated in this share capital increase, which resulted in the subscription of 10,108,918 shares at a price of €37.50 per share.
In addition, at its meeting on July 27, 2016 the Board of Directors of Total S.A. approved an ambitious employee shareholding policy and, in particular, the principle of a share capital increase reserved for employees each year rather than every two to three years, as was previously the case.
Employee savings are also developed via the Total Group Savings Plan (PEGT) and the Complementary Company Savings Plan (PEC), both open to employees of the Group's French companies that have subscribed to the plans under the agreements signed in 2002 and 2004 and their amendments. These plans allow investments in a wide range of mutual funds, including the TOTAL ACTIONNARIAT FRANCE fund that is invested in Total shares. A Collective Retirement Savings Plan (PERCO) is open to employees of the Group's French companies covered by the 2004 Group agreement on provisions for retirement savings. Other saving plans and PERCO are open in some French companies covered by specific agreements. Employees can make discretionary contributions in the framework of this various plans, which the Group's companies may supplement under certain conditions through a matching contribution. The Group's companies made gross matching contributions that totaled €70 million in 2016.
ORGANIZATION OF WORK
The average work week is determined in accordance with applicable local law and limits set by International Labour Organization (ILO) conventions. It is less than 40 hours in most subsidiaries located in Europe, Japan and Qatar. It is 40 hours in most subsidiaries located in Asian, African and North American countries. It is above 40 hours, without exceeding 48 hours, in subsidiaries located in Latin America (mainly Argentina, Mexico, Brazil), a few countries in Asia (India, Cambodia, Philippines) and Africa (mainly South Africa, Equatorial Guinea and Morocco).
In addition, there are two specific employment regimes within the Group, the “shift”4 regime and the “rotational”5 regime. Most shift workers are employed in the Refining & Chemicals and Marketing & Services business segments, while the rotational regime concerns the Upstream segment.
Depending on local law, there are several programs that aim to create a better balance between work and private life and / or encourage equal career opportunities. In France, teleworking was introduced in 2012. As of December 31, 2016, the number of teleworkers in France (WHRS scope) was 746, 33% of whom were men, compared to 454 in 2015 and 346 in 2014.
Among the numerous stakeholders with which Total maintains regular dialogue, the Group’s employees and their representatives have a privileged position and role, particularly in constructive discussions with management. In countries where employee representation is not required by law (for example in Myanmar and Brunei), Total strives to set up such representation. There are therefore employee representatives in the majority of Group companies, most of whom are elected. The subjects covered by dialogue with employees vary from company to company, but some are shared throughout, such as health and safety, work time, compensation, training and equal opportunity.
Within the Group, organizational changes are made in consultation with the employee representatives. For example, implementation of the One Total company project was preceded by a participatory process (via workshops involving over 2,500 employees). This was also true of the Group’s new organization (For more information refer to point 1.3 of chapter 2 (p.11) of the 2016 Registration Document), which resulted in the transfer of numerous activities and positions (approximately 1,200 employees affected) and was based on a constructive social dialogue. This dialogue led to agreements aimed at supporting organizational change and equipping the new companies created within this framework with social programs.
In addition, 330 agreements were signed in 2016 with employee representatives around the world, including 245 in France6, covering in particular retirement, employee savings, teleworking and compensation systems.
|WHRS 2016||WHRS 2015||WHRS 2014|
|Percentage of companies with employee representation||78.5%||76.9%||75.5%|
|Percentage of employees covered by collective agreements||68.9%||65.5%||67.8%|
In 2015, Total signed a global agreement with the worldwide trade union federation, IndustriALL Global Union, which represents 50 million employees in 140 countries. Under this agreement, the Group made a commitment to maintain minimum Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) standards and guarantees worldwide for subsidiaries in which it has more than a 50% stake, in the areas of occupational health and safety, human rights in the workplace, enhancement of the dialogue with employees, life insurance, professional equality, social responsibility and assistance with organizational changes. The Group also ensures that the principles of the agreement on health, safety and human rights are disclosed to and promoted among its service providers and suppliers. The implementation of this agreement is monitored annually with representatives who are members of trade unions affiliated with the IndustriALL Global Union and appointed by this federation. An initial follow-up meeting was therefore held in April 2016 to assess the implementation of the agreement and identify certain areas of improvement and actions to be taken.
A European Committee (single representative body for the employees at the Group level) has been set up in order to inform employees and hold discussions on the Group’s strategy, its social, economic and financial situation, as well as questions of sustainable development, environmental and societal responsibility, and safety on a European scale. It also examines any significant proposed organizational change concerning at least two companies in two European countries, to express its opinion, in addition to the procedures initiated before the national representative bodies.
In addition, every other year, Total carries out an internal survey (Total Survey) among its employees to gather their views and expectations with regard to their work situation and perception of the Company, locally and as a Group. The results of the survey conducted in 2015 among 65,000 employees at 508 entities in 115 countries demonstrated that employees have a commitment rate of 75% and that 87% of them are proud to work for Total.
The Group has four priorities in the field of training:
- sharing Total’s corporate values, particularly with respect to HSE and ethics;
- increasing key skills in all business areas to maintain a high level of operating performance;
- promoting employees’ integration and career development through Group induction and training on management and personal development;
- and supporting the policy of diversity and mobility within the Group through language and intercultural training.
The Group’s training efforts were still significant in 2016, with 79% of employees having taken at least one training course during the year. Within the WHRS scope, 274,858 days of training were offered on-site, compared to 289,000 days in 2015, for a total training budget of approximately €164 million, compared to €170 million in 2015 and €235 million in 2014. This decrease between 2015 and 2016 was due to the increase in online training courses, which are gradually being combined with or replacing onsite courses as part of the Group’s e-learning program, and to the combined effect of optimizing the length of training courses and improving training selection in order to be in line with priorities.
The digitalization within the Group, which began in 2015, aims to improve the effectiveness of the courses and impact the largest number of people as quickly as possible. It was accompanied by the launch in 2016 of a digital passport program to support the Group’s goals in this area, and nearly 12,000 people have already obtained this passport. Approximately 42,000 people received online training in 2016 and in 2015, compared to 30,000 in 2014.
In addition, Total University offers Group integration programs as well as courses aimed specifically at developing leadership among executive officers and managers. Total University also offers specific theme-based conferences, some of which are open to external audiences. These conferences cover strategic topics in the field of energy ranging from technology to geopolitics and societal matters.
Total is an international Group in terms of both its operations and its team members. The diversity of its employees and management is crucial to the Group’s competitiveness, innovative capacity and attractiveness.
For this reason, Total develops its employees’ skills and careers while prohibiting any discrimination related to origin, gender, sexual orientation or identity, disability, age or affiliation with a political, labor or religious organization. This policy is upheld by the Diversity Council, which is chaired by a member of the Group’s Executive Committee.
Each entity is responsible for defining its own areas of focus based on the legal context and its challenges and for creating a suitable work environment to fully benefit from skills and diverse approaches. This on-the-ground commitment combined with leadership at the highest level ensures that all employees, regardless of their gender or nationality, are offered the same career opportunities. The Group’s target for 2020 is:
- women represent 25% of senior executives (having represented approximately 5% in 2004 and 19.9% in 2016);
- non-French nationals represent 40% of senior executives (having represented approximately 19% in 2004 and 28.2% in 2016);
- women represent more than 20% of Management Committee members (head office and subsidiaries) (having represented approximately 20% in 2016);
- ans local managers represent 50% to 75% of the subsidiaries’ Management Committee members (having represented 54% in 2015 and 2016).
Equal treatment for men and women
In 2010, Total signed the “Women’s Empowerment Principles – Equality Means Business” set out in the United Nations Global Compact, and its commitment to equal treatment of men and women is regularly embodied in agreements, such as the global agreement signed in 2015 with IndustriALL. Specific measures are taken to correct discrepancies, such as salary equality (review and adjustment of compensation in 2013 and again in 2015) and teleworking to improve employees’ work-life balance.
In 2016, Total, along with 20 other oil and gas companies, made a commitment at the World Economic Forum by signing “Closing the Gender Gap – a Call to Action”. This joint declaration is based on seven action principles: involvement of management; expectation and goal setting; program dedicated to the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM); clear responsibilities; recruitment, retention and promotion policy; inclusive corporate culture; and work environment and work-life balance.
The Group also promotes gender diversity in its professions. In France, Total has partnered with “Elles bougent” since 2011 and served as honorary Chairman in 2015. Some 130 female engineers regularly inform high-school girls about careers in science. An event entitled “Elles bougent pour l’énergie” was attended by more than 2,000 participants throughout France.
In line with the goal of increasing the number of women in positions of responsibility, the TWICE network (Total Women’s Initiative for Communication and Exchange) aims to promote career development for women and train and educate men and women about gender diversity. Created in 2006, it is currently in place in France and abroad (19 local networks) and has over 3,000 members. As part of this network, a mentoring program is deployed internationally, and has benefited nearly 500 women since 2010.
Total also participates in the “BoardWomen Partners” program, which aims to increase the proportion of women on boards of directors in large European companies. At the end of 2016, women7 accounted for 54.5% of Total S.A.’s Board members (above the 40% required by Article L. 225-18-1 of the French Commercial Code) compared to 36.4% at the end of 2015 and 38.5% at the end of 2014.
Internationalization of management
With employees representing over 150 nationalities, TOTAL enjoys broad cultural diversity and believes that it is important to reflect this at all levels of its activities. In 2016, 93.4% of employees hired by the Group and 75.3% of managers hired were non-French nationals.
Several measures have been put in place to internationalize management, including training courses to internationalize careers, increasing the number of foreign postings for employees of all nationalities (nearly 4,300 employees of 108 nationalities are posted in 114 countries as of June 30, 2016), and integration and personal development training organized by large regional hubs (such as Houston, Johannesburg and Singapore).
Measures promoting the employment and integration of people with disabilities
For over 20 years, Total has expressly set out its disability policy in France through successive agreements signed with employee representatives to promote the employment of workers with disabilities. Three framework agreements signed for three years (2016-2018) with the French representative unions set out Total’s policy with regard to integrating people with disabilities into the work world. The average Group employment rate of people with disabilities in France (direct and indirect employment) was 4.99% in 20158 (compared to 4.74% in 2014 and 4.27% in 2013).
Total promotes the direct recruitment of disabled people and cooperation with the sector for disabled workers, while at the same time taking various types of action:
- internally: integration, professional training, support and job retention, communication, awareness sessions organized for managers and teams, Human Resources managers, etc.;
- externally: information and advertising aimed at students, cooperation with recruitment agencies, attendance at specialized forums, etc.
Measures promoting non-discrimination
Large-scale initiatives aimed at raising employees’ awareness of diversity are organized on a regular basis. After Berlin in 2015 and Singapore in 2014, in 2016 the Group’s Diversity Council, led by Momar Nguer, President of Marketing & Services and member of the Executive Committee, met with some 60 senior executives from 16 countries in South Africa to secure their commitment to pursue their actions in the areas of diversity and inclusion. The most recent World Diversity Day, which takes place every two years, was celebrated in 2015 at more than 180 Group sites around the theme “Diversity makes us better”.
Total is involved in a number of initiatives to promote diversity, including the professional integration of young people in France, for example via the “La France s’engage” partnership with the French government.
In 2014, the Group also signed the LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) Charter. This document, prepared by the L’Autre Cercle association, establishes a framework for combating discrimination related to sexual orientation or identity in the workplace in France.